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Secondary 3, English, Worksheet 3, Comprehension – tbc

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Secondary 3, English, Worksheet 3, Comprehension – tbc

There are a total of 23 questions.
Time Limit: minutes
a) 23 questions already input into LMS. Including sub-questions
b) categorized.
To follow up:
a) marks allocation
b) time limit
c) requires model answers and workings / explanations (if any);
d) review and determine if format /presentation is appropriate. Currently format used is:
e) Fill in the blanks (to consider if essay / open answer format is more appropriate – especially for Q2 – Q10)
f) Grammar portion of the worksheet shall be setup into a separate quiz as there is no linkage with comprehension


Astrology: A Science?

The ancient Babylonians and Chaldeans conceived that there was a correspondence between the planets, certain fixed stars, the earth, and human and worldly events. The stars were conceived as heroic beings and gods, each having a particular domain or realm of influence. They were thought, also, to have a sympathetic relationship between the phenomena of earth and the activities of men. The principle of correspondence postulated that whatever occurred as deeds or even as thoughts upon the part of the celestial powers resulted in a corresponding response in human affairs. This constituted a theory of transference of the imagined powers, habits, and acts from the celestial beings, or stars, to mortals.
Among the ancients, much of what is known as natural phenomena was considered to be of teleological origin, that is, as having a mind-cause. The phenomena were not thought to be the actions of impersonal natural law, but rather to be conscious acts upon part of the personalities associated with the planets, the sun, and the moon. Thus, these celestial bodies, according to the theories of ancient astrology, intentionally influenced men to do their bidding. This teleological theory eventually went through a transition so that the celestial influence was thought to be wholly naturalistic, each planet having certain inherent qualities which could be either modified or intensified when the planet was brought into a conjunction or certain relationship with others. The principle of correspondence, however, still persisted. Since human lives were related to the planets, depending upon the prevailing influence of the stars under which they were born, men were consequently affected in their earthly affairs by these celestial inter-relations.

For centuries, the most learned men, philosophers, scientists, and statesmen, gave serious study to astrology and placed much credence in its doctrines. This, of course, is no assurance of the accuracy of the belief since many learned men of the past have subsequently been proven to have erred in some of their judgements. In connection with astrology, there developed an almost Insuperable fatalism. Men came to deny their own judgements and conclusions in yielding to the expounded influences of the stars that prevailed. Even today, if the aspects of the stars are not favourable, may persons will not undertake a venture no matter what the circumstances or what their own reason dictates. Thus, they submit their intellects and wills to a conceived naturalistic power which exercises complete control over every department of their lives. Some astrologers insist, however, that the stars only incline but do not compel.

Astrology is one of the oldest consistent beliefs in the history of man. How factual are its doctrines? Is it merely an age-old superstition, the shadow of an era of greater credulity? The ancients, being the first astronomers, discovered the relation of various natural phenomena to celestial bodies. They saw how the sun seemed to rise and set, and they noticed its apparent connection with the seasons. They charted its celestial journey through the zodiac and were the first to inscribe its path in clay. They noted the different positions of the stars at various times of the year and observed the helical or strange rising of other stars at dawn and at periodic intervals. They studied the phases of the moon and began to speculate on the relationship of these phases to the tides and to functions common to women. Since these physical forces and conditions affected climate and seasons, it was presumed they must influence all life. If the moon influences gravity and the tides, does it also affect the human nervous systems? Because of its pull, does it in anyway retard or stimulate the flow of nervous energy? Does it alter, even minutely, the transmission along the neural pathways? If the moon’s phases have some attraction toward the magnetic balance of the earth and since man is, as well, a kind of electromagnetic organism, to what extent is he affected by this attraction? Would any change in his electrical constitution affect his glandular functions at different times monthly? If this is a scientific proof then most certainly man’s thinking and his emotional states vary slightly at different intervals corresponding to celestial influences.

It is no longer an old wives’ tale that the phases of the moon have an effect on the growth of plants. Botanists have announced that their controlled experiments revealed the influence of the moon upon plant life, especially in connection with the time of planting. Photosynthesis, the influence of the sun’s radiation on the chemical structure of plants, is recognized. I believe that no intelligent person will doubt that there are certain physical influences extorted upon earth by celestial bodies. Science is concerned today with cosmic rays, photons, and various radiations of the energy of the sun. With the passing of time, more of such phenomena will be discovered by astrophysicists and those in other related fields of science. The question is, do these subtle influences govern our lives? Do they incline one person to be distinct type of personality-aggressive, philosophical, or poetic? Further, are certain times more favourable for travel, for example, for romance, or for making contracts and other wholly human constructs?

We seriously protest – even though we may invite the criticism of, some astrologers – that the stars so specifically and directly enter into the individual destinies of men. We believe that such influences as the planets exert are as waves of influence that have a universal effect upon all men as do the sun and the moon. When under such an influence some men will be more or less extreme in their response than others because of the manner in which they are constituted and the effect of the impact upon them. To conclude, there is, we believe, a happy medium between the assertion that all human decisions of importance are the result of the influence of the stars and the converse, that the doctrine is without any foundation in fact.